Weather and Climate English Vocabulary

Weather: The condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time, including things like temperature, precipitation, and wind.
The weather today is sunny with a slight breeze.

Climate: The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time, typically over 30 years.
The climate in the Sahara Desert is generally hot and dry.

Temperature: A measure of how hot or cold the air is.
The temperature dropped to below zero last night.

Humidity: The amount of water vapor present in the air.
High humidity makes the heat feel even more oppressive.

Precipitation: Any form of water – liquid or solid – falling from the sky, including rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
We expect some precipitation this weekend, either rain or snow.

Forecast: A prediction or estimate of future weather conditions.
The forecast says it’s going to rain tomorrow.

Atmosphere: The layer of gases surrounding Earth, which is retained by Earth’s gravity and contains the air we breathe.
The Earth’s atmosphere becomes thinner as altitude increases.

Wind: Air in motion relative to the surface of the earth.
The wind is strong enough today to fly kites.

Breeze: A gentle wind.
A cool breeze made the hot day more bearable.

Gale: A very strong wind.
The ship struggled to reach the harbor during the gale.

Storm: A violent weather condition with winds, rain, or snow.
The storm caused major disruptions to the transportation systems.

Thunderstorm: A storm with thunder and lightning and typically also heavy rain or hail.
If you hear the sound of thunder, a thunderstorm is nearby.

Lightning: A sudden electrostatic discharge during a thunderstorm.
The lightning was so intense, it lit up the entire sky.

Thunder: The sound caused by lightning.
The thunder was loud enough to shake the windows.

Fog: A thick cloud of tiny water droplets suspended in the atmosphere at or near the earth’s surface that obscures or restricts visibility.
The fog was so dense this morning, I could barely see the road ahead.

Mist: A thinner form of fog, usually not as dense or thick.
The mist over the lake created a mystical atmosphere.

Dew: Water droplets that form on cool surfaces at night, when atmospheric vapor condenses.
Morning dew covered the grass, making it look like a field of diamonds.

Frost: A thin layer of ice on a solid surface, which forms from water vapor in cold conditions.
The frost on the window formed beautiful patterns.

Blizzard: A severe snowstorm with strong winds and intense snowfall.
The blizzard shut down all roads and schools in the area.

Hurricane: A tropical cyclone with winds that have reached a constant speed of 74 miles per hour or more.
The hurricane caused widespread damage along the coast.

Tornado: A mobile, destructive vortex of violently rotating winds having the appearance of a funnel-shaped cloud.
The tornado lifted the roof off the house as it passed through the town.

Drought: A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water.
The drought has lasted over two months now, severely affecting the crops.

Flood: An overflowing of water onto land that is normally dry.
The river broke its banks and caused a flood in the nearby areas.

Understanding and using these weather and climate-related terms can greatly enhance your ability to describe environmental conditions in English. Whether you’re planning to travel, watch the news, or simply engage in conversation, a solid vocabulary in this area is essential.

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